Solar cell records and key technological advances

Solar cell records are broken all over the world nearly every week. Over the years, the SOLARLab community has presented many breakthrough solar cells designs with efficiency records listed below. Most record have been broken since, by SOLARlab partners or others. SOLARLab also develops new materials and cell designs that can find their way in many different solar cell technologies. Some of these breakthroughs are listed below (incomplete list).


  • 33% efficient Si/GaAs/GaP solar cell with nanopatterned backreflector (with Fraunhofer ISE)
  • insight in ion migration for stabilization of perovskite solar cells
  • new tandem solar cell device designs
  • perovskite nanocube thin film fabrication technology
  • nanoelectrochemical growth of III-V semiconductors
  • hyperuniform light trapping patterns
  • realistic efficiency modelling of tandem solar cells
  • self-learning perovskiet solar cell materials
  • new instruments for PV materials characterization (EBSD, SEM-CL)

Delft University of Technology

  • 14.8%: world record initial efficiency for double-junction thin-film silicon solar cells (with EPFL Neuchâtel)
  • 13.2%: record efficiency for amorphous silicon/polymer multi-junction solar cells (with TU/e)
  • 5.2%%: world record solar-to- hydrogen conversion efficiency for PV/PEC device based on metal-oxide photo-anode (2014)
  • 23.83%: world record c-Si heterojunction solar cell endowed with MoOx 23.83% efficiency (certified on the 13th of January 2022)
  • 29.6%: 4T tandem perovskite/c-Si solar cell (with TNO and TU/e)
  • 25.1%: 2T tandem perovskite/c-Si solar cell (with TU/e)

Eindhoven University of Technology

  • The Molecular Materials and Nanosystems group was first in developing solution-processed tandem (2007), triple (2013), and quadruple (2018) junction polymer solar cells
  • First to demonstrate photoelectrochemical water splitting using organic triple junction cells (2013, 2015)
  • 11.6%: record efficiencies for amorphous silicon/polymer tandem (with TUD, TU/e, 2016)
  • 13.2%: triple junction polymer cells (with TUD, TU/e, 2016)
  • 16.8%: all-perovskite triple junction cells (2020)
  • 23.1%: state-of-the-art all-perovskite tandem cells (2022)
  • 25.1%: perovskite/c-Si tandem solar cells in 2T configuration (with TUD)
  • 29.6%/29.7%: perovskite/c-Si tandem 4T configuration (with TNO, TUD, and industrial partners)
  • 21%: Photoelectrochemical water splitting:  solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency using perovskite/c-Si tandem cells in a continuous flow system (with TUD)

Groningen University

  • 9%: record efficiency for Sn-based perovskites (2018)
  • 19.1%: Pb/Sn based perovskite solar cells,stable up to 90% of initial efficiency under theral testing (90 min, 85°C, in nitrogen)


All records obtained with partners participating in the Solliance collaboration.

  • 30.0%: 4T perovskite/Si tandem solar cell (with TUE, TUD, IMEC), silicon bottom cell from industrial partner)
  • 29.6%: perovskite-silicon solar cell (silicon bottom cell from TUD)
  • 27.8%: perovskite-CIGS tandem solar cell
  • 22%: large-area module (about 100 cm2) with perovskite-silicon PERC sub-cells (PERC bottom cell from industrial partner)
  • 21.8%: large-area module (about 80 cm2) with perovskite-CIGS (CIGS from industrial partner); 18.0% larger area flexible all thin-film module (about 80 cm2 and perovskite-CIGS and CIGS from industrial partner). The best efficiency obtained for a single junction PIN perovskite cell is 22.3%
  • The semi-transparent flexible and rigid modules with PIN stack pass damp-heat tests (1000h at a relative humidity of 85% and a temperature of 85oC) and thermal cycling (200 cycles from -40oC to 85oC) as well as light soak tests (1000h light soak at an intensity similar to 1 sun conditions)

University of Twente

  • high-performance front-contact technology using transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), microstructured metallic electrodes (effectively transparent contacts, ETCs)
  • important information on the charge transport in (organic) solar cells including the origin of s-shape current-voltage characteristics in solar cells
  • demonstration of IZO as a rear electrode for semitransparent perovskite top cells (with EPFL)
  • 15%: buffer-free semitransparent perovskite top cells with pulsed-laser-deposited TCOs (with TNO)


Further, a very active student body interested in solar energy at the various nodes has been participating and/or been successful in solar car and boat challenges.